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                            蘇州非物質文化遺產信息網 >?國家級名錄 >?蘇州第一批國家級非遺代表作名錄  
                          蘇州御窯金磚制作技藝
                          作者:佚名   文章來源:本站原創   點擊數:8484   添加時間:2008-05-23  
                          類別 傳統手工技藝 編號
                          Ⅷ—32

                           

                              御窯位于蘇州市相城區陸慕鎮御窯村。千百年來,這里的村民一直以燒窯為業,有著燒制磚瓦的傳統工藝。

                              明代永樂年間,明成祖朱棣遷都北京,大興土木建造紫禁城。經蘇州香山邦工匠的推薦,特派官員到蘇州陸慕(現為陸慕)監制金磚。由于這里土質優良,做工精細、燒制有方、工藝獨特,所產金磚細膩堅硬,“敲之有聲,斷之無孔”,遂被永樂皇帝賜封為“御窯”。北京故宮的太和殿、中和殿和天安門城樓就鋪設著御窯金磚。

                              金磚是大型方磚的雅稱。據古籍《金磚墁地》記載:“是專為皇宮燒制的細料方磚,顆粒細膩,質地密實,敲之作金石之聲稱“金磚”。又因磚運北京的京倉,供皇宮專用,稱之“京磚”,后逐步演化稱“金磚”。

                              御窯金磚黛青光滑,古樸堅實,它面平如砥象一方黛玉;它光滑似鏡若一塊烏金。敲擊它時發出金屬般鏗鏘之聲。御窯金磚有著獨特的制作工藝,非常繁復辛苦。工序多達二十余道,其中主要工序有選泥、練泥、制坯、裝窯、烘干、窯水、出窯等。道道工序環環緊扣,一道不達,前功盡棄。

                              御窯金磚是我國窯磚燒業中的一支奇葩,明清以來受到歷代帝王的青睞,成為皇宮建筑的專用產品。到明代嘉靖時,金磚燒制進入全盛期,清朝末年以后,因戰爭連年,金磚生產時斷時續,直至1984年才完全恢復生產。

                              御窯金磚具有較高的實用價值和觀賞價值。用金磚鋪地具有光潤耐磨,愈擦愈亮,不滑不濕等特點,既可防止地下潮氣上升,又能把宮殿襯托得更加雄偉壯麗,把豪宅古居裝點得富麗舒適。

                              御窯金磚是吳文化孕育的結晶,凝聚著御窯人的靈巧和智慧,使一塊泥土“變土為金。”是我國民族建筑文化的一顆璀璨明珠。

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