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                            蘇州非物質文化遺產信息網 >?國家級名錄 >?蘇州第一批國家級非遺代表作名錄  
                          香山幫傳統建筑營造技藝
                          作者:佚名   文章來源:本站原創   點擊數:13355   添加時間:2008-05-22  
                          類別 傳統手工技藝 編號
                          Ⅷ—27

                           

                              北京故宮、天安門、蘇州園林舉世聞名,無人不知。但是,有多少人知道這些精美絕倫的世界文化遺產的設計和營造者呢 ? 以蒯祥,姚承祖等為杰出代表的蘇州香山幫匠人,用超群的建筑技藝,在中華建筑史上寫下了光輝的篇章。

                              蘇州的香山位于山青水秀,環境優美的太湖之濱,是有 2500 多年的歷史,是吳文化的發祥地之一。香山地跨北緯 31`14'-31`18', 東經 120`22'-120`28' 。有香山,花墩,外塘,水橋,郁舍,蔣墩,陳華,舟山等108個自然村,人口17000 左右,占地面積約 40 平方公里。

                              香山幫以木匠領銜,是一個集木匠,泥水匠,漆匠,堆灰匠,雕塑匠,疊山匠,彩繪匠等古典建筑中全部工種于一體的建筑工匠群體。由于香山幫古建營造工藝眾多,并且十分復雜和漫長,所以不能一一予以詳細介紹。

                              香山幫是一個歷史悠久,傳承 2500 多年的建筑流派,它起源于春秋戰國時期,形成于漢晉,發展于唐宋,光盛于明清,衰落于民國。近幾年來,雖然有些生機,但仍未擺脫瀕危的困境。

                              香山幫出了不少名流大師,如“塑圣”楊惠之和世界上第一架飛車制造者徐正明,最有盛名的當數蒯祥和姚承祖兩人。

                              蒯祥主持明皇宮三大殿,天安門和王府六部衙署的營造,發明創造了“金剛腿”。他被憲宗皇帝尊稱為“蒯魯班”,由此可見他對中國建筑的貢獻之大之多了。

                              姚承祖是繼蒯祥之后的又一名香山幫建筑大師。現存的怡園里的藕香榭,靈巖山寺的大雄寶殿,香雪海的梅花亭都是他的作品。而他最大的成就和貢獻,是一部記述香山幫傳統做法的專著——《營造法原》。這本書被國人譽為中國蘇派建筑的寶典。

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