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                            蘇州非物質文化遺產信息網 >?國家級名錄 >?蘇州第一批國家級非遺代表作名錄  
                          蘇繡
                          作者:佚名   文章來源:本站原創   點擊數:11262   添加時間:2008-05-19  
                          類別 民間美術 編號
                          Ⅶ—18

                              蘇繡技藝主要集中分布于市區與太湖之濱的鎮湖。據《說苑》記載,二千五百年前蘇州就已有刺繡服飾。宋代蘇州刺繡有所發展,蘇州目前最早的刺繡實物是從虎丘塔、瑞光塔中出土的刺繡品。明代,蘇繡開始形成“精細雅潔了獨特風格。其時刺繡欣賞品多采用文人畫稿,代表為韓希孟的繡品。出現專為皇室御用的宮貨貨繡和商品繡,戲衣業由昆曲興起而盛。清代,蘇州被稱為“繡市”, 有 3 個刺繡行業公所,繡莊 150 多家 , 四鄉有繡工十萬余人,刺繡成為眾多家庭的副業。清末民初,蘇繡藝術家沈壽創仿真繡。二十世紀三十年代蘇繡名家楊守玉創亂針繡。解放后蘇繡藝術大放光彩。但隨著現代化的推進,近年來蘇繡的傳承面臨危機。

                              蘇繡是一門古老的手工技藝。原料主要有底料和花線。工具有繃架和繃凳、繡針、擱手板。工藝流程包括設計繡稿、勾稿、染線、上繃、釘稿、配線、刺繡、下繃、裝裱等。針法有九大類四十多種。在長期的發展中蘇繡形成了獨特的技藝術語和一套完整的繡法技藝體系。其中較為著名與獨特繡種有雙面繡、雙面三異繡等。

                              蘇繡自明以來,大師輩出、佳作迭出,目前有確切傳人并有重大影響的蘇繡傳承譜系可分為三大體系:以沈壽為第一代以仿真繡為主的傳承譜系、傳統細繡為主的傳承譜系和以楊守玉為第一代以亂針繡為主的傳承譜系。主要研究和傳承單位有蘇州刺繡研究所和蘇州高新區鎮湖街道等。

                              蘇繡技藝在長期的發展中形成了廣泛性、完整性、系統性、拓展性、地方性、融合性、藝術性、嚴密性、靈活性等特征。

                              保護蘇繡技藝對保護中國傳統書畫藝術、研究中國的傳統刺繡技藝與工藝美術理論、保護中華豐富的服飾傳統與服飾文化、蘇州民俗研究與保存部分民俗及婦女研究等均具有重要的意義。

                              蘇繡在清代以后不斷從其他地區、民族的刺繡技藝中汲取營養,與湘繡、蜀繡、粵繡與苗繡等繡種相互融合,互相影響。二十世紀以后,蘇繡技藝作為中國傳統工藝美術的代表在國際上多次獲獎,獲得廣泛贊譽,并促進了國內國際工藝美術與文化藝術交流。

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